英語with的用法

信息來源于:互聯網 發布于:2021-08-20

一、 with結構的構成
With結構構成方式如下:
1. with或without-名詞/代詞+形容詞;
2. with或without-名詞/代詞+副詞;
3. with或without-名詞/代詞+介詞短語;
4. with或without-名詞/代詞+動詞不定式;
5. with或without-名詞/代詞+分詞。
二、with結構的用法
With結構在句中可以作定語。
1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.
2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few patches of land sticking out above the water.
3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.
with結構多數充當狀語,表示行為方式,伴隨情況、時間、原因或條件。
1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.
(with+名詞+形容詞,作伴隨狀語)
2、 With the meal over , we all went home.
(with+名詞+副詞,作時間狀語)
3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。
(with+名詞+介詞短語,作伴隨狀語。) 
The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.
4、He lay in the dark empty house, with not a man ,woman or child to say he was kind to me.
(with+名詞+不定式,作伴隨狀語) 
He could not finish it without me to help him.
(without+代詞 +不定式,作條件狀語)
5、She fell asleep with the light burning.
(with+名詞+現在分詞 ,作伴隨狀語)
6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something to eat.
(without+代詞+過去分詞,作為原因狀語)
三、 with結構的特點
1. with結構由介詞with或without+復合結構構成。復合結構中第一部分與第二部分語法上是賓語和賓語補足語關系,而在邏輯上,卻具有主謂關系,也就是說,可以用第一部分作主語,第二部分作謂語,構成一個句子。
 With him taken care of, we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)
→(He was taken good care of.) 
She fell asleep with the light burning. 
→(The light was burning.) 
With her hair gone, there could be no use for them. 
→(Her hair was gone.)
2. 在with結構中,第一部分為人稱代詞時,則該用賓格代詞。
例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.
四、 說明:
1. with結構作狀語時, 不定式/現在分詞/過去分詞的區別:
不定式表示將要發生的動作,
現在分詞表示正在發生或發生了的動作,
過去分詞表示被動或完成.
With the boy leading the way, we found he house easily.
(小男孩已領過路)
With the boy to lead the way, we will find the house easily tomorrow.
(小男孩明天將領路)
He lay on the bed with the bedroom door shut.
(寢室被關著)
2. with結構與獨立主格結構的區別
with結構屬于獨立主格結構,但在結構上,with結構由介詞with或without引導,名詞前有冠詞、形容詞、所有格代詞或其它詞類所修飾,結構較松散;
而獨立主格結構沒有with或without引導,結構嚴密,名詞前可用可不用修飾語。
在句法功能上,with結構可以作定語,獨立主格結構則不能;獨立主格結構通常在句中作狀語,但也可以作主語,而with結構則不能。
獨立主格在口語中不常用,往往由一個從句代替,而with結構較口語化,較常用。
例如:
There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.
("with+復合賓語"結構,在句中作定語)
A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.
(名詞+現在分詞構成的獨立主格結構,作主語)
The boy said, turning to the man, his eyes opened wide and his hand raised.
(獨立主格結構,表示伴隨狀況或行為方式,作狀語)
Then last night, I followed him here, and climbed in, sword in hand.
(名詞+介詞短語構成的獨立主格結構,作狀語,表示伴隨情況)。

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